The kneeling seems unique, but we do "bow" during certain prayers (like the amidah and veneemar) and cover our face during others. I've only seen kneeling like this among Muslims during prayers, but it may be an Orthodox Jewish practice. I grew up going to a Conservative synagogue, which has a somewhat different liturgy and service style than Orthodox.
I don't recognize the prayer here. The shma is the holiest prayer in all Judaism ("shma y'israel adonai elohenu adonai ehad" = "Hear O' Israel the Lord our God, the Lord is One") This is some other prayer that follows it in a service I don't recognize.
Islam and Judaism have MANY similarities in practice, much moreso than either has with Christianity. God's 'posture' towards earth is more similar in these two religions than in Christianity. The emphasis on law is similar (and even some of the laws are similar).
Part of the reason for this is that for the majority of rabbinic Jewish history, the major centers of Jewish learning and theology were in Muslim lands, especially Spain, Damascus, and Baghdad. These were the major sites of the "Yeshiva", or the institutions where rabbinic scholars wrote the Talmud and other rabbinic texts and interpreted law. There was a great deal of conversation and cross-fertilization with Islam, and many examples of where each religion influenced the other.