Introduction to Imanuel Kant

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Arjen
 
Reply Sat 20 Oct, 2007 06:15 pm
I have started this topic to vote on this post being formulated well enough to function as a brief introduction into who the philosopher Immanuel Kant is. If one would vote negatively, then also leave a hint on what exactly is inaccurate, untrue or not clear. That way it can be improved to fit the bill. Once approved an admin can post a sticky on Kant with the brief introduction in it.


Immanuel Kant - Brief Summary

Immanuel Kant
22 April 1724 - 12 February 1804 , German philosopher.

Life

Christian Wolff, one of the first enlightenment thinkers in Germany.

Works

Kant became an increasingly influential philosopher. In response to a letter from his student Markus Herz he came to realize the importance of the fact that our sensible and intellectual faculties do have a certain relation to eachother.Kant also credited David Hume with awakening him from his "dogmatic slumber".

Some of Kants most important works are:

(1764) Observations on the Feeling on the Beautiful and the Sublime ()
(1781) First edition of the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)
(1783) Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics ()
(1788) Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)
(1790) Critique of Judgement (Kritik der Urteilskraft)

Metaphysics: A Theory of Perception

Immanuel Kant was working on a philosophy which would take into account the way people percieve reality. His entire philosophy is based upon the theory that what people percieve is not necessarily true. He concludes, as David Hume concludes, that our mind plays an active part in understanding what we percieve. Therefore our mind forms images of the percieved objects (phenomena) in our mind which differ form the objects in itself (noumena). A logical consequence of this line of thought is the question how (and if!) it is possible that we can have thoughts on noumena.

analytic reasoning. If, on the other hand, we would know only : {5,7} and we would still conclude that 5 and 7 together are 12 Kant would call it synthetic reasoning.

metaphysical

categoria" present in mankind. The name categoria is a tribute to Aristotle, Kant does make adjustments to Aristotle's categoria though. Kant divides them into four groups (and adds a few): quality, quantity, modality and relation. To top the theory off Kant also concludes that all these categoria can only exist by the existance of space and time. Kant calls these categoria and space and time transcendental.

Ethics

Kant suggests that we should not look for what is good in, say an apple, but in the way that an apple is. Not all apples are good after all. Likewise he concludes that an action in itself can be good or bad. It is something about this action that we call good or bad. After all we could "borrow another persons bucket to carry our "borrowed" gold in or to carry water in to put out a fire. The difference between the two intentions is the idea of a "goal" or of a "duty":

1) The group whichs acts with a subjective "goal" in mind, which he calls the hypothetical imperative.
2) The group which acts only out of some form of "duty", which he calls the [categorical]Error imperative[/url].

The catergorical imperative can be summed up by the maxims which consist of these following (objective) reasonings:
a) "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law."
b) "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means"
c) "Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends."

Kant suggests that within our intentions to act lies a ]maxim (a subjective principle or rule that the will of an individual uses in making a decision) which forms the (subjective) initiative to the action.

Kantianism

Kantianism or Kantian is the term used for thoughts that are based on the work of Immanuel Kant. This work opposes dogmatism

Written by
Arjen


---edit---
Say, guys, I forgot to actually add the poll. COuld anyone add it for me? Just two options please: yea and nea. Smile
 
b6zulu
 
Reply Sun 21 Oct, 2007 06:06 pm
@Arjen,
First edition of the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)

A tough read, and not intuitive.
 
Justin
 
Reply Sun 21 Oct, 2007 06:34 pm
@Arjen,
If anyone has something to add to this, please post it and we'll see if it's something that should be incorporated. Please add the word - "SUBMISSION" in the subject line of something you'd like to add. Then Arjen can either edit it or add it. Something like a wiki I suppose.

I like what you've done Arjen and I'm going to think of a way to incorporate into the other philosophers. Maybe a standard form of questions like birth - death, childhood, education, work, family, religion, philosophy, and possibly others.

Great stuff Arjen! Thank you! I'll get working on custom titles or badges as well as some of the other much needed updates.
 
Arjen
 
Reply Mon 22 Oct, 2007 11:33 am
@Arjen,
Yeah, that is what I was thinking too: a uniform overvieuw so to speak. And thanks for the compliments. Smile
 
Arjen
 
Reply Mon 29 Oct, 2007 02:05 pm
@Arjen,
I would like to add a few things:

To the metafysics: From these theories Kant defines his entire philosophy.

Ethics

Kant suggests that we should not look for what is good in, say an apple, but in the way that an apple is. Not all apples are good after all. Likewise he concludes that an action in itself can be good or bad. It is something about this action that we call good or bad. After all we could "borrow another persons bucket to carry our "borrowed" gold in or to carry water in to put out a fire.

Kant suggests that within our actions lies a ]maxim (a subjective principle or rule that the will of an individual uses in making a decision) which makes the difference between the imperatives.

1) The group whichs acts with a subjective "goal" in mind, which he calls the hypothetical imperative.
2) The group which acts only out of some form of "duty", which he calls the [categorical]Error imperative[/url].

The catergorical imperative can be summed up by the maxims which consist of these following (objective) reasonings:
a) "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law."
b) "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means"
c) "Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends."
 
kennethamy
 
Reply Mon 29 Oct, 2007 06:52 pm
@b6zulu,
b6zulu wrote:
First edition of the Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft)

A tough read, and not intuitive.


You cannot understand Kant (or any other philosopher) unless you understand who it is he is arguing against, and what it is he is trying to defend. Kant has a love-hate relationship with David Hume. Kant tells us that it was Hume who "awoke him from his dogmatic slumbers" and make him understand that there was a crisis in philosophy as it was normally then practiced. For Hume had powerfully argued that the traditional metaphysics that Kant was brought up in, and which he was teaching, was "sophistry and illusion". And Kant recognized that the defense of metaphysics against Hume's attack was a "matter of life or death" for philosophy. In the event, Kant conceded that Hume's attack on traditional "speculative metaphysics" was entirely successful, and traditional metaphysics Rationalism (or Pure Reason) could not be salvaged. So Kant started anew to try to replace traditional metaphysics with something different that could withstand Hume's attack, and so, asked his key question, which was, "How are synthetic a priori judgments possible?" Without understanding what this question is asking, and without understanding what Kant's answer to that question is, the point of the First Critique cannot be understood.
 
Arjen
 
Reply Fri 2 Nov, 2007 12:06 am
@Arjen,
After Kennethamy's post a small editing of my previous post:

I would like to add a few things:

To the metafysics: From these theories Kant defines his entire philosophy.

Ethics

Kant suggests that we should not look for what is good in, say an apple, but in the way that an apple is. Not all apples are good after all. Likewise he concludes that an action in itself can be good or bad. It is something about this action that we call good or bad. After all we could "borrow another persons bucket to carry our "borrowed" gold in or to carry water in to put out a fire. The difference between the two intentions is the idea of a "goal" or of a "duty":

1) The group whichs acts with a subjective "goal" in mind, which he calls the hypothetical imperative.
2) The group which acts only out of some form of "duty", which he calls the [categorical]Error imperative[/url].

The catergorical imperative can be summed up by the maxims which consist of these following (objective) reasonings:
a) "Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law."
b) "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means"
c) "Therefore, every rational being must so act as if he were through his maxim always a legislating member in the universal kingdom of ends."

Kant suggests that within our intentions to act lies a ]maxim (a subjective principle or rule that the will of an individual uses in making a decision) which forms the (subjective) initiative to the action.
 
boagie
 
Reply Fri 23 Nov, 2007 04:44 pm
@Arjen,
Summation of critique:)

Kant, Immanuel summary of the critique of reason : philosophy - Groovyweb Free Downloads and Tutorials
 
Ichthus91
 
Reply Wed 30 Dec, 2009 07:09 pm
@Arjen,
Kant: Metaphysics
Kant: Aesthetics
 
Citia
 
Reply Sun 16 May, 2010 06:22 pm
@Arjen,
Very good summary. Thanks Smile
 
 

 
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