Sun 15 Mar, 2009 08:10 am
Philosophy developed since the 16th century, has achieved impressive fruits which means that philosophy seems to have peaked, in fact, it does not. Philosophy is like a book from top to bottom, it is only the upper part of the work completed, and the lower part of the work has only just begun. You can keep saying this suspect, but I will prove this view is correct later. How can we let philosophy further? Perhaps just like build a new house. If we just use old materials, old tools, old ways, despite the different drawings, we may build some strange houses and called them post-modern, but there is no essential difference. How to build a truly revolutionary new house? We need join the new materials, new tools, such as reinforced concrete, new ways altogether, all of which we need to be updated. The same is true of philosophy, philosophy need new perspectives, new research methods, and more theoretical material, which is the only way we can go further.
We now consider the following question, which philosophers have thought for many centuries, why philosophers thought about this?
Through the efforts of many Western philosophers, something has been achieved. This is this all about chance? The reality that there have different parts of the world's philosophical deepened the doubt. Philosophers were thinking, but they are ruled by their time, so they must be thinking this way, not that thinking. How can we demonstrate the inevitability of it? These questions will be answered later.
To analysis the world, we use a new method, which may be a useful attempt. We analyses the formation and the inevitability of differences between the Chinese and Western philosophy. We need two systems, one system is the European continent system, anther one is Chinese system. These systems include elements of the environment, system, culture, and members of the community, and so on. To order to analyses of the characteristics of the system, what the system is disturbed must be taken into account; these disturbances will decide how to change the system. These are the development of the cultural system, the formation of disturbance, the system of people's cultural enlightenment, the changes of system, and the last disturbance in the system under a new shape. We also need to analyze the differences caused by differences in how the system disturbance. For example, systems of different formation would lead to a different disturbance. At original stage, both system have the same cultural, institutional, social formation, the only difference is environment. Environmental differences, as the initial factor causes later differences. When the time passed the differences of the two systems increased. It's like the butterfly effect; the initial system with only a slight difference result to greater difference. Before civilization, the role of the environment is no doubtless. Human affected by the environment as other animal species. You may think that I am talking environmental determinism, you may interpret it this way, but you will know how the big difference. A direct impact on the environment is in the early stages of the development of the system, but when the development of culture, social system goes to mature. The environmental effects on the cultural system and the disturbance will gradually step up as a minor force in disturbance. As we have seen in the modern society, despite the geographical environment such as the distribution of resources, also exerting a certain influence, culture's influence on system is bigger.
The two systems in their own environment created their own culture, social systems and patterns after a long period of time. When the system of environmental factors on the impact of disturbance has been replaced by a system of culture, we need to analyze the characteristics of the system during this period. Geographers and historians tell us that because of environmental reasons, when Europe enter the agricultural, the survival of Europe is characterized by agriculture, commerce, fisheries, animal husbandry, development of the maritime industry are relatively full, while a relatively small proportion of agriculture . People lived in the semi-state settlement, highly mobile staff, the system of each country in a more intense international competition. China and its survival of the characteristics are: agricultural development is more fully, and commerce, fisheries, animal husbandry is relatively backward and does not fully develop. The nation is strong for most part of the time; there is no greater threat to from outside. In the agricultural era, the two systems in the environment as the first factor, the first factor of the system caused by differences in the evolution of diversity, the differences are inevitable. In this regard, it is not difficult to learn from history and geography to find out the answer, I do not need too much explanation. In the agricultural system of the times characterized by the existence of differences is very clear. In the form of society, people often say that China is a unified, and Europe is divided, which is not accurate. Since the Qin Dynasty unified China, although about 1200 years China was uniformed, China still has 700 years of history of divided, while divided Europe is only just a longer period of time. We need to know what other factors led to the split of Europe even longer period than the Chinese. Environmental factors are the main reason for this situation. In this regard, geographers and historians have been given rich and objective information. I can do some brief: China's major rivers, they flow from west to east, almost all of them pour into the sea, and uniformed. The origin of the Chinese nation is in Mesopotamia, the Yangtze River, Yellow River is the mother river, the rivers were formed east-west alluvial plain, located in the hinterland of China to form the Central Plains region. Central China is the focus of China, since ancient times Central China, take its lead in the world, other parts of the Central Plains area abilities and there is no match, the geographical conditions it is the role of the unification of China has laid a necessary foundation of Qin, which rely heavily on the advantages of Central China. Europe do not river like the Yangtze River, which runs through it. In the centre is the Alps, in North and South were a few others on the peninsula and around the inland sea, every river go its own directions. She's the mother river of the two; one is the Rhine, which flows to the North Sea, another is the Danube, runs east into the Black Sea. European countries rely on the natural geographical barriers to defend the integrity of the country; the result is a long divided Europe. This section of text analysis let us understand the reality that the environmental differences in the initial system in Europe and China, and other new factors exaggerated cultural difference.
Before analysis cultural differences, it is necessary to discuss ethical issues first.
The following analysis will touch the shortcomings of Western philosophy. When we talk about ethics, western philosophy treated them as "self." Chinese philosophers almost have no rebuttal. From the very beginning, Chinese philosophers belief that "self" is just not as clear as Western philosophy's linguistic expression. In the "self" on the premise of philosophy and done a lot of conclusions, but no one doubts the premise that there is a big problem, leading to the conclusion that the truth be false. Let us now take a look at "self", we first need to clear that the "self" is just a description of the phenomenon, which can not describe to us what's more, it is only a description of the phenomenon. I do not know if you understand what I mean? I can give an example to illustrate this point, for example: What is humanity and where human come from? Theology tells us that humanity is God-made. The anthropologist does not think so, and now we can draw some conclusions that humanity is changing from apes and monkeys. This is our research results. We found built-in rules, see the essence of things. However, there is a superficial initial perceptual knowledge that people only human to do a definition of who is defined as an animal walking on two legs, and did not have any feathers. The results of a joke, can we say that a ostrich without feathers is human. You can laugh at people who own understanding of the naive, but we can not deny that people can only understand the description of the phenomenon, while its nature more difficult to understand. Now we are on the self-awareness in the same mistake, we are only what are meant by self-provision. It is not clear, however, when human beings evolve from animals to human beings, how to form the self. This is the most critical issue, which involves the philosophy in the future. Philosophy is a book from top to bottom, is the upper part of Western philosophy, anthropology is lower. Western philosophy has been to address the most critical and most basic problems. Then we need to provide a tool of Western Philosophy to consider the issue of anthropology, but once the problems with this tool, our research will go on a route can not be saved. When we think about anthropology, we found that our do not really understand moral and Western philosophy is too simple to treat moral as self. But in real life, we always talk about ethics, and there is confusion. Here we need to understand what is moral.
What is the moral? Where it come from?
Philosophy needs to return to the philosophy. We have a lot of philosophical studies are moving away from the philosophy of our most fundamental purpose, which is how to survive. For no reason at all not have the philosophy, which produced the human struggle for survival are closely related. For individual people, he must face two problems. First, he needs to face the individual living space. Second, he must face his survival of the collective living space. There are two individual choices or optimization of personal living space, and optimize the collective living space. The so-called optimization is to make use of the existing conditions of the interests of making the most of the meet. In the living space of the optimization process of the survival of human beings have had a variety of awareness, including moral standards. We can not deny the reality that: the difference between individuals, such as physical differences; intellectual differences and power difference and so on. These differences in the rest of the products under the conditions led to the distribution of differentiation. The difference of production can be tested in the field of history. We formed this differentiation factors collectively known as the capital, we am not trying to create a new word. The capital is not only the meaning of referring to the capital, which includes the power, intelligence and physical condition and so on, a word from those of different factors. The difference in the survival of capital in accordance with the formation of the survival difference is an inevitable trend. The capital strength of the individual was larger living space, and in the capital of the disadvantaged individuals in a squeeze by the state. Then there is a phenomenon, the capital of differentiation as a living space of the divisive on the basis of only one way. There are also other animals in this way are often the first stocks to maintain the greatest understanding of the living space. Human is different from other animals because of human consciousness in the more far advanced. In the face of the sense of living space will not remain indifferent to the division, which in theory would provide living space divided into different requirements. Living space based on the survival of the capital to break into the living space of the original balance, part of the individual living space has been expanding while the other part of the individual's living space is being squeezed. There is no advantage to use rulers of the capital constraints of survival and expansion, they were the rulers of living space has been constant pressure. This time in the human sense of the ruler called for the expansion of living space is a necessary check. As a result of democratic ideology, morality is in the process produced. This is a human in the sense of progress. We can see that these theories and ideas arising from the fundamental purpose is to contain the expansion of living space, living space for the redrawing of the theory, to provide support. It is completely different from the basis of the divided capital, to provide the theoretical division of the means of survival is to some extent competitive balance. In Europe, democratic ideas gradually developed a system that is bound by the democratic system in China, the system also exists in the Democratic ideology, but democracy has never been the formation of institutionalized thinking. The reason for this is a separate topic, I is not here discussed. In the face of national survival of the individual competition, they will make every effort to safeguard the country's living space, they are usually national to optimize the living space as the act of justice, and this is a moral judge. All in all the living space of the optimization process on ethics. When an individual to optimize the survival of over-expansion, we lack, he said the United States and Germany, while those to be collective and individual living space brought about by the optimization we have, he said the United States and Germany. The living space is a movement to optimize the process, so it is unstable. Even people of high moral character may appear over-expansion of living space, but we can not completely negate his personality. The moral of the lower one, or sometimes to optimize the maintenance of other people's living space, we can not conclude that this person of high moral character. We got the truth when the existence of consciousness and the inevitable link between the existence of a clear. When we isolated them separated, we get a false truth. Not without reason and self-self, which have to survive in the optimization process? Therefore I can say that our studies of Ethics are based on mentalism and has never been half a step from mentalism! For new, to establish ethics based on materialism is a matter of urgency.
After analysis the formation of the United States and Germany, now we turn to consider the differences in the environment of the system contributed to differences in the evolution of the culture. Through the front of the analysis can be aware of the living space of optimization and the establishment of a connection between moralities. The European system, each country's rulers have to face two problems when the first ruler to seek to expand the living space of time. This will force the strengthening of individual mobility. The rule of the rulers will face as a result of the loss of individual countries and lead to the collapse of the danger. In this case, the ruler must ensure an appropriate degree of expansion of living space and to ensure individual mobility in their living space to meet the optimal range. So was born the relative democracy, freedom and the environment are binding contract is particularly important. Second, the ruling class to expand the living space is bound to have been caused by the ruling class pressure of living space, resulting system instability in the country. This instability along with the ruling class to expand the living space to strengthen aggravated. In the country must face the living space race, the rulers should also be considered sufficient to maintain the strength to safeguard national living space, so as to ensure its dominance. So in order to ensure political power is not the invasion or internal subversion, the rulers still need to be ruler in a relatively relaxed living space. The environment, the moral conflict is relatively weak. In theory at this time will not be indifferent to the state, was born with this adaptation theory as the guiding ideology of the future generations will have a huge impact. Among them, democracy and free thinking have a Enlightenment, but also have a religion. We know that in Christian Europe has been greatly spread. In these theories, moral factor is essential. In Europe, democracy and freedom of religion and at the same time take up the balance of living space. On the other hand China in the international competition in a strong position as the rulers is more concerned about domestic issues rather than international issues. Due to the mobility of the individual is weak, the ruling class of the ruling class was formed by squeezing the living space is clearly the better, because they settle in the state, the rulers rarely worried about the loss of the individual. As the ruling class was inside the living space even more pressure because of the narrow, and its in-house competition will also be more fierce. In this environment, the living space of a very strong conflict. In order to alleviate this conflict, in theory, the solution is an inevitable choice. First of all, to some extent prevent the ruling class to expand the living space, followed by the individual to ease the space between the squeeze as a result of circumstances caused by the survival of competitive tension. China's bound to have a function with the theory and the rule of the country as a guiding theory to ensure the stability of the country. We know that the Chinese have had a Confucian, Confucianism on the one hand, require rulers to follow good, benevolent, not oppression over the ruled, between the individual and on the other hand, follow the requirements of loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, righteousness, moderation, the best way to show respect, humility, etc. in order to ease their survival as a result of internal optimization caused by the struggle with each other and make use of the grading system to realize the concept of dislocation and the competition to reach the stability of the system, moral restraint create. In addition to the supreme ruler declared himself emperor, this myth has color, and Confucianism is a myth that non-colors. This is Christian and has a great deal of difference. We need to focus on the differences, because in the world of Christian theology and philosophy to form a strong confrontation and this did not happen in China. Study of Confucianism can be found, as the living space and optimizing the connection between morality and so inextricably linked to Confucian ideology and ethics. Despite the many philosophers of Confucianism led to accusations of disadvantage As a result, but we found it just a product of the environment and is a reasonable result, even if there is no Confucianism, or is it the Royal thinking, or thinking of the Li and so on, Their role is the same, and we can not deny the context of its environment, but where they are ignored. By comparison the two systems, we found that cultural differences were caused by differences in environment.
No matter it is Christian or Confucian; they all balance the living space theoretically. Since then, but what happened is we have not thought of. That the use of religious rulers to complete the optimization of a better chance of surviving. These have been the emergence of religious belief in order to achieve a balance of living space, but they have since the use of anti-ruled. In China, the Qin Dynasty is not the beginning of great importance to Confucianism; he thought the rule of law to complete its rule.
However, the ruling class is not binding on the expansion soon led to the country civil strife, the change of dynasty, the state system restructuring. After reorganization these, the need to find theoretical support in order to avoid tragedy from happening again is showed. This time the role of Confucianism is immediately apparent. That is why China more than 2,000 years for that persistent use of the root causes of this theory. Confucianism is a product of the times. In order to continuous improvement, the rulers make this theory more effective in support of its dominance. In Europe, the Christian influence, go beyond the power of the imperial power. Religion has become a part of the power of bishops to optimize the survival of the capital, it said led to the corruption of power. When the individual in order to achieve the purpose of optimizing the living space, you can use all the means of escape may be used, although we do object to the spirit. Therefore, we do not have to become surprise that Christian become a profit-making.
Philosophy is the reflection of the human consciousness of the existence and trying to find out the reasons. All human progress from the grasp of the necessity and inevitability of the law is the sense of the sum. Because awareness of the inevitability of human existence to become the main means of optimizing it to promote the understanding of the philosophy of the initiative. From the existence of awareness, understanding can not be out of existence. Well, we can not deny the reality is: the existence of differences will lead to the recognition of differences. Therefore, the "why, as philosophers like," We must understand that the "existence". We have different systems that exist in different philosophy of how to create awareness of the differences, which will allow us to see this issue more clearly. Analysis of differences in many areas have been neglected, it is a mistake. For example, in the field of economics, when an economist discuss model, they made a number of non-treatment, which will lead to economic theory, the effectiveness of the lower. This is the most obvious and overlooked the country's system of differences. Difference in people's ancient negligible, but the country as a whole system in the long period of time, a great difference, it is no question about it. Due to differences in workers, the same technology in different parts of the world's efficiency and the use of the economic effect is different; this differentiation will lead to economic development on the differentiation. We can not the difference from economic theory, so it is very difficult to guarantee that we can make accurate judgments in the future.
Now we can consider the influence from the two different systems with different disturbance on the development of the philosophy theory. In ancient times, all over the world who can not understand the world, so people use theological to describe the phenomenon. In the understanding of philosophy and theology in the world when they formed the opposition, the first such confrontation in Europe and China co-exist. The ancient Greek philosopher always looks for the primitive problems of the world. Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu that: "The people follow the rules of the physical environment, geography and environment to follow the rules of the universe, the universe and to follow the law, the law is a natural phenomenon." Even now, the Lao people are still thinking of admiration, He's not thinking of the myth of a color, to explore the world of the existence of many laws. Due to optimize the living space will lead to the emergence of moral consciousness, so in the West have had an in-depth ethics of thinking, this is the inevitable result. Due to differences in systems, awareness of ethics is also bound to the existence of differences. I am more concerned that since the 16th century philosophical changes. The difference this time is even more concerned about the analysis. China and the West in the two systems set up their own theoretical system. Confucianism, the dominant in China, becomes the guiding ideology of the country as a whole. The education system imparts knowledge to all of Confucianism for the content, then known as the scholars. In Europe, the Christian culture occupies an important position, the religious schools that teach theology. During this period, democracy, freedom of thought is gradually maturing. China in the Qin Dynasty after almost all focused on the philosophy of Confucianism in this area. Confucianism is not as strong with a Christian as the myth of color. In the Confucian ideology, Chinese philosophy and theology did not have a confrontation. In theory the system can produce the opposite is the behavior of individuals and Confucian ideology provided by the act of measurement. You will find in the literature of Chinese self-cultivation of personality that constitute almost all the time. The purpose of these documents is how to conduct themselves more Confucian norms. I have discussed the role of Confucianism, and Confucianism advocates of the ruling class should pay attention to optimizing the survival of the ruling class was, at the same time advocate of mutual respect between people, not their own survival and optimize the impact on others. He claims: the others do not want to do unto people. Such theory is popular among people. The remaining question is how to make the theory more perfect. China's Qin rise to a number of important prior to the philosophy of Lao Tzu is one of the best of the "Dao De Jing", which is a work of genius, so far no one can fully understand. And after the Qin Dynasty, China's Confucian philosophy did not take the scope of theology and philosophy during this period of confrontation almost disappeared, only a small point against the theological voice. In Europe, theology and philosophy of the opposition has never been the slightest relaxation. Christian was portrayed in the world occupy the leading position in the field of understanding. However, the development of natural science challenge the credibility of Christianity, in particular the development of astronomy that has shaken the theology of the geocentric. In the development of science continue to challenge the authority of theology; philosophy and community get some inspiration. Hegel was known as the father of modern philosophy of Descartes is a distinguished. He claimed that all doubts from the beginning, it is necessary to establish a universal concept of justice and based on the philosophy, which is the theology can not be tolerated. But this is the thinking of Europe at that time the development of philosophy and the direction it wants to shake off the shackles of theology and defeat it completely. In Europe, educational institutions, all religious schools are full of theology. When philosophers talk about anthropology, theology tells them that this is meaningless. Were created by God, the whole world is God's creation. Philosophy and theology have had a sharp confrontation, which is an important change. Philosophers conducting anthropological research, they have to cross over in front of them the theology of the mountains. This has spurred the study of philosophy to happen. Philosophy research in the world prior to the need to be clear, one can understand the real world? If everything is illusion, we only have to obey the teaching of theology. This is the sense of presence and relationship problems. Then we have to ask, how are we going to rely on their own understanding of thinking in the world, we thought it reliable? If it is reliable, we can correct understanding of the world, the theology of all of the value is doubtful. This is the logic of the birth. When the West gradually improve the system of philosophy, the spirit of materialism has dominated, has lost the authority of theology. So when Western philosophy into China, the Chinese awareness of the fundamental changes in the field of democracy and freedom are not thinking, but the people of God. People no longer blindly believe the emperor is the emperor; it is far from the popular superstition of the times. This is a real change took place. This is the philosophy of the West. Western philosophy of the 16th century, in particular after the completion of the most basic philosophy is the core part of the people; category can be by virtue of their own understanding of the power of the world. Well, following a thorough understanding of how human beings, the philosopher is the main task. This is the philosophy of the lower part of the book: anthropology. Despite the philosophers in both West and China have done a lot of work in this respect, but anthropology by far perfect.
The resistance of the development of the philosophy comes from the old system theory, the old way of thinking and the old shackles of research tools. We need a new perspective, new research methods, the new theory of intervention. Philosophy relates to large number of subjects, such as geography, history, psychology, economics, sociology, and ethics. If we only care a very small scope, there will have no big breakthrough. Philosophers must think in a broader view. The study of anthropology needs new methods, such as the system disturbance provided by my analysis, and comparative analysis of differences. I still have a number of other new perspectives; I will express it at some point.
MODERATOR EDIT (Khethil): Paragraphs inserted and font increased for readability.